Memorias de investigación
Localization and activity detection based on the fusion of environment and inertial sensors

Research Areas
  • Electronic technology and of the communications,
  • Information technology and adata processing

Inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) have been gradually embedded in the devices that people use in their daily lives thanks to their miniaturization. Nowadays all smartphones have at least one embedded magnetometer and accelerometer, containing the most upto- date ones gyroscopes and barometers. This issue, together with the fact that the penetration of smartphones is growing steadily, has made possible the design of systems that rely on the information gathered by wearable sensors (in the future contained in smart textiles) or inertial sensors embedded in a smartphone. The role of these sensors has become key to the development of context-aware and ambient intelligent applications. Some examples are the performance of rehabilitation exercises, the provision of information related to the place that the user is visiting or the interaction with objects by gesture recognition. The work of this thesis contributes to explore to which extent this kind of sensors can be useful to support activity recognition and pedestrian tracking, which have been proven to be essential for these applications. Regarding the recognition of the activity that a user performs, the use of sensors embedded in a smartphone (proximity and light sensors, gyroscopes, magnetometers and accelerometers) has been explored. The activities that are detected belong to the group of the ones known as ?atomic? activities (e.g. walking at different paces, running, standing), that is, activities or movements that are part of more complex activities such as doing the dishes or commuting. Simple, wellknown classifiers that can run embedded in a smartphone have been tested, such as Naïve Bayes, Decision Tables and Trees. In addition to this, another aim is to estimate the on-body position in which the user is carrying the mobile phone. The objective is not only to choose a classifier that has been trained with the corresponding data in order to enhance the classification but also to start actions. Finally, the performance of the different classifiers is analysed, taking into consideration different features and number of sensors. The computational and memory load of the classifiers is also measured. On the other hand, an algorithm based on step counting has been proposed. The acceleration information is provided by an accelerometer placed on the foot. The aim is to detect the activity that the user is performing together with the estimation of the distance covered. The step counting strategy is based on detecting minima and its corresponding maxima. Although the counting strategy is not innovative (it includes time windows and amplitude thresholds to prevent under or overestimation) no user-specific information is required. The field of pedestrian tracking is crucial due to the lack of a localization standard for this kind of environments. A loosely-coupled centralized Extended Kalman Filter has been proposed to perform the fusion of inertial and position measurements. Zero velocity updates have been applied whenever the foot is detected to be placed on the ground. The results have been obtained in indoor environments using a triangulation algorithm based on RSS measurements and GPS outdoors. Finally, some applications have been designed to test the usefulness of the work. The first one is called the ?Activity Monitor? whose aim is to prevent sedentary behaviours and to modify habits to achieve desired objectives of activity level.
Mark Rating

Research Group, Departaments and Institutes related
  • Creador: Grupo de Investigación: Grupo de Procesado de Datos y Simulación (GPDS)-CEDITEC
  • Departamento: Señales, Sistemas y Radiocomunicaciones