Memorias de investigación
Distributed collaborative processing in wireless sensor networks with application to target localization and beamforming

Research Areas
  • Processing and signal analysis

The proliferation of wireless sensor networks and the variety of envisioned applications associated with them has motivated the development of distributed algorithms for collaborative processing over networked systems. One of the applications that has attracted the attention of the researchers is that of target localization where the nodes of the network try to estimate the position of an unknown target that lies within its coverage area. Particularly challenging is the problem of estimating the target?s position when we use received signal strength indicator (RSSI) due to the nonlinear relationship between the measured signal and the true position of the target. Many of the existing approaches suffer either from high computational complexity (e.g., particle filters) or lack of accuracy. Further, many of the proposed solutions are centralized which make their application to a sensor network questionable. Depending on the application at hand and, from a practical perspective it could be convenient to find a balance between localization accuracy and complexity. Into this direction we approach the maximum likelihood location estimation problem by solving a suboptimal (and more tractable) problem. One of the main advantages of the proposed scheme is that it allows for a decentralized implementation using distributed processing tools (e.g., consensus and convex optimization) and therefore, it is very suitable to be implemented in real sensor networks. If further accuracy is needed an additional refinement step could be performed around the found solution. Under the assumption of independent noise among the nodes such local search can be done in a fully distributed way using a distributed version of the Gauss-Newton method based on consensus. Regardless of the underlying application or function of the sensor network it is al¬ways necessary to have a mechanism for data reporting. While some approaches use a special kind of nodes (called sink nodes) for data harvesting and forwarding to the outside world, there are however some scenarios where such an approach is impractical or even impossible to deploy. Further, such sink nodes become a bottleneck in terms of traffic flow and power consumption. To overcome these issues instead of using sink nodes for data reporting one could use collaborative beamforming techniques to forward directly the generated data to a base station or gateway to the outside world. In a dis-tributed environment like a sensor network nodes cooperate in order to form a virtual antenna array that can exploit the benefits of multi-antenna communications. In col-laborative beamforming nodes synchronize their phases in order to add constructively at the receiver. Some of the inconveniences associated with collaborative beamforming techniques is that there is no control over the radiation pattern since it is treated as a random quantity. This may cause interference to other coexisting systems and fast bat-tery depletion at the nodes. Since energy-efficiency is a major design issue we consider the development of a distributed collaborative beamforming scheme that maximizes the network lifetime while meeting some quality of service (QoS) requirement at the re¬ceiver side. Using local information about battery status and channel conditions we find distributed algorithms that converge to the optimal centralized beamformer. While in the first part we consider only battery depletion due to communications beamforming, we extend the model to account for more realistic scenarios by the introduction of an additional random energy consumption. It is shown how the new problem generalizes the original one and under which conditions it is easily solvable. By formulating the problem under the energy-efficiency perspective the network?s lifetime is significantly improved.
Mark Rating
Sobresaliente cum laude

Research Group, Departaments and Institutes related
  • Creador: Grupo de Investigación: Grupo de Aplicaciones del Procesado de Señal (GAPS)
  • Departamento: Señales, Sistemas y Radiocomunicaciones