Observatorio de I+D+i UPM

Memorias de investigación
Thesis:
MECHANISMS UNDERLYING MEMORY ENHANCEMENT IN HUMANS
Year:2017
Research Areas
  • Cognitive neuroscience
Information
Abstract
Memory has been a focus of intensive research since the 1800s. Currently, we know of several factors that modulate episodic memory, such as emotions, reward, unexpected events and semantic relations. However the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown in humans. This thesis explores the neural bases of two factors which influence memory ?actions and unexpectedness. Movement is not typically considered a factor that modulates memory but in the 1960s a possible relationship between movement and memory was suggested by evidence that lesions of the hippocampus?a region with a key role in episodic memory- provoked hyperactivity in rodents. Later studies in humans have confirmed a relationship between voluntary movement and hippocampal activity, but little is currently known about the relationship between motor and memory systems. In this thesis the hypothesis that voluntary movements, completely unrelated with the memory content, influence episodic memory is tested in humans. Across a series of behavioral experiments, a voluntary movement-evoked episodic memory enhancement was found. Furthermore, fMRI and pupilometry analysis revealed that this memory enhancement is mediated by the noradrenergic system. In addition, functional connectivity was observed between the Locus Coeruleus ?the main source of noradrenaline in the brain-, and the parahippocampal gyrus ?a region known to represent an important role in episodic memory encoding. This implies that a voluntary movement triggers the release of noradrenaline in the brain that targets memory areas to promote episodic memory encoding. Another factor known to modulate episodic memory is novelty, which can be defined as any event that represents a mismatch between expectation and experience. Hippocampal damage impairs the acquisition of novel episodic memories, which may suggest a role in processing novel stimuli. Hippocampal responses to novelty stimuli has been studied in animals and humans with different functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques, however differences in the novelty processing along the long axis of the hippocampus remain unknown. Anatomical, functional, connectivity and genetic differences have been shown along the long axis of the hippocampus. A functional role of theta oscillatory frequency has been ascribed along the longitudinal axis in rodents decreasing from dorsal to ventral portions in rodents concomitant with an increase in place field size. A systematic evaluation of gamma and theta frequencies along the longitudinal axis has not been done in humans. In this thesis electrophysiological correlates with novelty have been studied along the longitudinal axis of the human hippocampus in pharmaco-resistant epileptic patients using intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings. A polarity inversion of the event related potential between the head and the body observed, lead us to suggest a possible electrical novelty-evoked source within the anterior portion of the hippocampus. Different portions of the hippocampus (head, body and tail) show a within-region power increase in theta and gamma frequency bands, reflecting increased local activity in each longitudinal portion during novelty processing. Analysis of phase locking value and imaginary coherence revealed between-region theta coherence increase. However, phase locking values were not affected by unexpectancy indicating that different portions of the hippocampus were similarly synchronized. This consistent phase relationship in theta between portions of the hippocampus led us to test for the presence of traveling waves along the hippocampal long-axis (as has been recently shown in rodents and in limited number of human patients). We confirmed theta (and alpha) traveling wave pattern along the long axis of the hippocampus from posterior to anterior segments. This implies that the hippocampus experiences different phases of theta and alpha frequencies at the same time, poten
International
Si
Type
Doctoral
Mark Rating
Sobresaliente cum laude
Date
09/06/2017
Participants
  • Director: Bryan Strange (UPM)
  • Autor: Maria del Mar Yebra . (UPM)
Research Group, Departaments and Institutes related
  • Creador: Grupo de Investigación: Tecnologías para Ciencias de la Salud
  • Centro o Instituto I+D+i: Centro de tecnología Biomédica CTB
  • Departamento: Tecnología Fotónica y Bioingeniería
S2i 2019 Observatorio de investigación @ UPM con la colaboración del Consejo Social UPM
Cofinanciación del MINECO en el marco del Programa INNCIDE 2011 (OTR-2011-0236)
Cofinanciación del MINECO en el marco del Programa INNPACTO (IPT-020000-2010-22)