Descripción



When a structural problem is posed, the intention is usually to obtain the best solution, understanding this as the solution that fulfilling the different requirements: structural, use, etc., has the lowest physical cost. In a first approximation, the physical cost can be represented by the selfweight of the structure; this allows to consider the search of the best solution as the one with the lowest selfweight. But, from a practical point of view, obtaining good solutions?i.e. solutions with higher although comparable physical cost than the optimum? can be as important as finding the optimal ones, because this is, generally, a not affordable task. In order to have a measure of the efficiency that allows the comparison between different solutions, a definition of structural efficiency is proposed: the ratio between the useful load and the total load ?i.e. the useful load plus the selfweight resulting of the structural sizing?. The structural form can be considered to be formed by four concepts, which together with its material, completely define a particular structure. These are: Size, Schema, Slenderness or Proportion, and Thickness. Galileo (1638) postulated the existence of an insurmountable size for structural problems?the size for which a structure with a given schema and a given slenderness, is only able to resist its selfweight?. Such size, or structural scope will be different for every different used material; the only needed information about the material to determine such size is the ratio between its allowable stress and its specific weight: a characteristic length that we name material structural scope. The definition of efficiency given above is not useful for structures that have a small size in comparison with the insurmountable size. In this case?structures with null size, inwhich the selfweight is negligible in comparisonwith the useful load?we use as measure of the cost the dimensionless magnitude that we call Michell?s number, an amount derived from the ?quantity? introduced by A. G. M. Michell in his seminal article published in 1904, developed out of a result from J. C.Maxwell of 1870. R. Aroca joined the theories of Galileo and the theories of Maxwell and Michell, obtaining some design rules of direct application (that we denominate ?GA rule?), that allow the estimation of the structural scope and the efficiency of a structural schema. In this work the efficiency of trusslike structures resolving bending problems is studied, taking into consideration the influence of the size. On the one hand, in the case of structures with null size, nearoptimal layouts are explored using several minimization methods, in order to obtain forms with cost near to the absolute optimum but with a significant reduction of the complexity. On the other hand, a method for the determination of the insurmountable size for trusslike structures is shown, having into account local bending effects. The results are checked with the GA rule, showing the conditions in which it is applicable. Finally, some directions for future research are proposed: the measure of the complexity, the cost of foundations and the extension of optimization methods having into account the selfweight.  
Internacional

No 
ISBN


Tipo de Tesis

Doctoral 
Calificación

Apto cum laude 
Fecha

20/01/2016 